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Security communications related terminology

Nov 17, 2017

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HDMI: High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a digital video / audio interface technology, is a dedicated digital interface for video transmission, which can simultaneously transmit audio and video signals, the maximum data transfer speed For 2.25GB / s

Lotus head: audio and video cable, connecting the head due to more like a lotus, so called "Lotus head", or as "Lotus plug" (English name RCA connector).

BNC: Full name Bayonet Nut Connector, a connector for coaxial cables

VGA: It is a kind of video transmission standard that IBM introduced with PS / 2 machine in 1987, has the advantages of high resolution, fast display speed, rich color, etc., Have been widely used in the field of color display.

DVI: (Digital Visual Interface), the digital video interface. It was launched in 1999 by the DDWG (Digital Display Working Group), a joint venture of Silicon Image, Intel, Compaq, IBM, HP, NEC and Fujitsu. Interface standard.

DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for dynamically assigning configuration information

DNS: The Domain Name System, which converts names to IP addresses in a user-friendly way

MPEG: MPEG standard mainly has the following five, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, MPEG-7 and MPEG-21. Specifically responsible for the CD to establish video and audio standards, and members are for video, audio and systems in the field of technical experts. Later, they succeeded in separating the recording of sound and video from the traditional analogue mode, established the ISO / IEC11172 compression coding standard, and formulated the MPEG-format to make the audio-visual transmission enter the digital era. Therefore, everyone now refers to the MPEG-X version, which is developed by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and released video, audio, data compression standards.

DCIF: We often say 2CIF (704 * 288, also known as HalfD1), compared with CIF (352 * 288) in the horizontal direction to double the resolution, unchanged in the vertical direction, and we are accustomed to the display ratio 4: 3, after the horizontal and vertical scaling processing, will result in the image is not balanced. Then we will odd and even two HALF D1, the anti-interlaced transform to form a D1, D1 by the level of 3/4 down, 2/2 down, converted into 528 * 384.528 * 384 the number of pixels is exactly CIF 352 * 288) twice the number of pixels, in order to distinguish 2CF with the usual said, we call it DOUBLE CIF, referred to as DCIF. Obviously, DCIF is more balanced than Half D1 in both horizontal and vertical directions, and improves resolution in both horizontal and vertical directions over CIF. After testing a large number of video signals, based on the current video compression algorithm, DCIF (528 * 384) can solve the problem of insufficient CIF resolution and excessive D-stream. At 512K-bit rate, you can get a stable, high-quality image.

H.264: There are two international standardization organizations responsible for video and audio coding. One is the Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) under the ITU-T, which promotes the development of video and audio coding technology. One is Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), a Moving Picture Experts Group under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which promotes the widespread use of video and audio codecs. After releasing the compression standard of H.263 in 1997, VCEG formulated short-term development plan H.26N and long-term development plan H. H.26N developed into H.263 + and H.263 ++. MPEG released H.263 in VCEG Later, the MPEG-4 SP version was released. In the fourth quarter of 2001, when VCEG H developed to TML 9.0, MPEG formed a joint video coding expert group JVT with VCEG, and improved and perfected H's algorithm. In May 2003, VCEG released H.264 compression Standard; MPEG in JVT on H compression algorithm based on the technical specifications into the MPEG-4 standard, as the tenth part of MPEG-4 released (PART10), is the AVC version of MPEG-4. H.264 and MPEG-4 AVC represent the latest generation of video and audio codecs in the world.

H.265: H.265 is the new video coding standard developed by ITU-T VCEG after H.264. The H.265 standard revolves around the existing video coding standard H.264, preserving some of the original techniques, while improving some related technologies. New Technologies Use advanced techniques to improve the relationship between code stream, encoding quality, latency, and algorithm complexity to optimize settings. Specific research includes: improve compression efficiency, improve robustness and error resilience, reduce real-time delay, reduce channel access time and random access delay, reduce complexity and so on. H264 can realize standard definition digital image transmission under the speed of 1 Mbps because of algorithm optimization; H265 can realize 720P (resolution 1280 * 720) common high definition audio and video transmission by using the transmission speed of 1 ~ 2Mbps.

FAT32: FAT32 is a cluster of byte table is 4 bytes (32 bit) file allocation table (FAT, FileAllocation Table refers to the file allocation table). Each cluster in the FAT32 partition format is fixed at 4KB, which drastically reduces the waste of disk space and improves disk utilization.

HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol

IDE: A type of disk drive interface

NFS: Network File System

NTSC: A television system

OSD: screen display

PAL: A television system

PTZ: PTZ, the lens control

PPPoE: PPP over Ethernet transmission protocol

RCA: a video and audio interface (commonly known as lotus head)

RS-232: A 25-pin interface standard developed by EIA, also becoming the EIA-232

RS-485: A 25-core interface standard developed by EIA, also becoming the EIA-232

SDK: Software Development Kit

TCP: Transmission Control Protocol

USB: Universal Serial Bus

UTP: unshielded twisted pair, this article refers to the Ethernet interface

Saturation: The intensity or purity of the color image color

Alarm: switch alarm signal

Alarm: alarm collector

Serial Port: Serial Interface

Port number: Protocol port address, an integer, used to identify a process

Contrast: The ratio of the screen brightness

Multicast address: The address used for multicasting

Composite Stream: A data stream with video and audio compression

Loop-through output: This article refers to the input video signal one-on-one output

Decoder: Controller that parses the control protocol

Video delay: to reach the set recording time, the time to extend the size of the future

Client: A program that initiates communication to the server

Brightness: The relative brightness of a color image

Stream Type: Compressed video data type, including video stream and composite stream

Command Trigger: Trigger the execution of a task by command

Upload center: send alarm and abnormal data through Ethernet port

Chroma: color difference component

Audible warning: Notify by sound when alarming

Video loss: The video input channel has a video connection but no video signal is received

Video Streaming: A video-only compressed data stream

Image Resolution: Image size and size in pixels

Gateway: A device used to connect two separate networks using different communication protocols

Bit rate: bit rate type, bit rate limit

Physical Address: Media Access Control address, also known as MAC address

Cruise: camera's path of movement

Motion Detection: Analyze video for changes

Hover Detection: A location-based matching tracking is performed on a target appearing in a video surveillance area, and a recorded time or number of occurrences of the tracked target is recorded. All objects having an existing time or a number of presentations greater than a corresponding first preset threshold As a candidate hovering target; performing histogram-based matching tracking on the candidate hovering target, and recording the time of existence or the number of occurrences of the tracked candidate hovering target, and recording all the existence times or the number of presentations greater than the corresponding second setting Threshold candidates hover target as the hovering target.

Pre-recorded time: pre-recording before the pre-recording time

Preset: Preset coordinates

Block alarm: A zone is blocked after the alarm

Covered: Hides a video area in the image

SMART: Full name in English, Self-Monitoring, Analysis and ReportingTechnology, its Chinese meaning is self-monitoring, analysis and reporting technology, the technology has been officially established in the ATA-3 standard, and all hard disk manufacturers also provide support for it SMART technology can monitor the head, disk, motor, circuit and so on. The monitoring software on the host computer can analyze and compare the operation status of the monitored object with the historical record and the preset safety value. When there is something other than the safety value range, SMART technology can Automatically warn users. Through S.M.A.R.T. technology can effectively predict the potential failure of the hard disk, improve data security.

Dynamic adjustment of encoding parameters: In the case of not start and stop recording, network transmission, the adjustment of the encoding parameters that take effect. Monitoring system, the static monitoring scene, you can use to reduce video resolution, image quality, bit rate and frame rate of the method, the video at a very low bit rate, and when the image changes can improve the resolution of the video , Quality, bit rate and frame rate to achieve high-quality video recording. Since the above parameters can be dynamically modified, continuous images can be maintained without frequent switching of files, thus meeting the requirements for high image quality at a critical moment and saving Hard disk space and network bandwidth.

Resolution: The type of resolution includes display resolution, image resolution and pixel resolution. Display resolution refers to a particular display mode, the largest display area on the screen, with horizontal and vertical pixels. Image resolution refers to the size of a digitized image, also expressed in horizontal and vertical pixels. If the image resolution is greater than the display resolution, will result in some images can not be displayed. Pixel resolution refers to the ratio of the width to the length of one pixel, and different pixel aspect ratios will cause the graphics to distort.

Commonly used in digital surveillance image resolution: PAL format: QCIF (174 * 144), CIF (352 * 288), 2CIF (704 * 288), DCIF (528 * 384), 4CIF (704 * 576). NTSC format: QCIF (174 * 120), CIF (352 * 240), 2CIF (704 * 240), DCIF (528 * 320), 4CIF (704 * 480).

VGA display commonly used display resolution: 640 * 480,800 * 600,1024 * 768 and so on.

Dual-stream: refers to all the way through the video encoder video output two independent streams, the output stream resolution, frame rate, rate and other parameters can be set independently, the two generated stream to meet different applications Requirements, such as a hard disk storage, a network transmission.

Watermarking: refers to the use of signal processing methods to embed hidden tags in digital multimedia data. Such tags are usually invisible and can only be protected by specially designed detectors to protect them.

Definition of watermarks: The behavior of actions that do not perceptibly embed information in a work. Watermarking system consists of embedder and detector. The embedder has two inputs: one to encode the information as a watermark, and the other to embed the watermarked vector artwork. The output of the watermark embedder is typically transmitted and recorded. The watermark input output by the embedder is input into the watermark detector, and most detectors will try to detect the existence of the watermark, and if so, output the watermark encoded information. Watermarking technology in the field of monitoring: content certification, about to embed the signature information into the content to be tested in the future whether the content has been tampered with, here refers to the video content. The vast majority of watermarking applications can be done using other techniques as well, but true watermarks have three advantages over other technologies: 1. Unperceivable; 2. Watermarking does not disappear when the artwork is displayed; 3. Watermarks are Works embedding watermarks undergo the same transformation.

Transparent channel: It is a technology that sends the IP datagram directly to the serial port after it is parsed. In fact played a role in extending the serial device control distance. IP network can control a variety of serial devices, such as control decoder, matrix, alarm host, access control, instrumentation and other serial devices, for users, only to see the point-to-point transmission, without concern for the network transmission process, so called Serial transparent channel.

File fragmentation: A file is scatteredly recorded in a noncontiguous cluster number, and the content of the files in these discontinuous clusters is called file fragmentation. When the contents of the hard disk file is repeatedly deleted, after writing, prone to file fragmentation, it will increase the hard disk seek delay and rotation delay, thus affecting the operating efficiency and life of the hard disk. If you pre-defined files, each file pre-assigned a good cluster number, you can completely avoid the generation of file fragments.

Cyclic recording and acyclic recording: Cyclic recording refers to when the program detects all the hard disk recorders in the hard disk space is full, no need to replace the hard disk, automatically overwrite the original video recording method. Acyclic recording refers to the recording mode that stops recording when all the hard disk space in the hard disk recorder is full. In this way, you must replace the hard disk, or after the hard disk processing (video data backup and then formatted) can continue recording.

Motion Detection: A technique for determining if a video scene has changed by analyzing a video image. The movement of the entity in the scene, the change of the light and other factors are all considered as the scene has changed.

Frame type: I (Intra code frame) The frame is an intra-frame coded frame, a P (Predicted frame) frame is a coded frame predicted forward from I or a neighboring P, and a Bi-direction frame (B) Or P, P frame calculated interpolation frame.

Frame rate: (Frame rate) is a measure of the number of frames displayed. The so-called unit of measurement is Frames per Second (FPS) or Hertz (Hz). This term is used for video production and video games.

Bit rate: Bit rate refers to the number of bits transmitted per second. Bps (Bit Per Second), the higher the bit rate, the faster the data transfer. The bit rate in sound refers to the sampling rate at which digital sound is converted from an analog format to a digital format. The higher the sampling rate, the better the sound quality after reduction. The video bit rate (bit rate) principle and sound the same, all refers to the analog signal into a digital signal sampling rate.

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